Vocational Training

I. How to improve skills (Vocational Training)

A. The vocational training.

Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, productivity and performance.

 Vocational Training  is a training that emphasizes skills and knowledge required for a particular job function (such as typing or data entry) or a trade (such as carpentry or welding).


B.  Where to find the good training

National skills development policies and systems strive to meet labour market needs for skills and to improve productivity and competitiveness in all sectors in which human resources are critical for the integration of skills development into national employment and development strategies.  Skills policies and systems encompass technical and vocational training, workplace learning, and learning opportunities in the informal and rural economies and education and training for lifelong learning. Skill development is a key factor in the employability of worker at any enterprises. This is the tip to earn skill development and good training is to join at any Vocational Training Centers (is manufacture which produce human resource with competency skills) such as:

II. Micro credit and training/study

Micro credit is a source of financial services for small businesses, people in community who are lacking access to banking. And it is defined by the process of formulating groups within a community to assist poverty stricken people by lending them money without the need of credit or collateral, but at the current situation in Cambodia there are not so many Microfinance institutes who provide loan without collateral. AndIn the apparently Cambodian living situation microfinance institute may serve as the following purpose:


  • Lifecycle Needs: such as weddings, funerals, childbirth, education, homebuilding, widowhood and old age.
  • Personal Emergencies: such as sickness, injury, unemployment, harassment or death.
  • Disasters or Phenomenon: such as fires, floods, cyclones
  • Business Opportunities: expanding a business, buying land, buying equipment, buying raw material to farming, buying seed and improving housing, etc.

In the developing country like Cambodia Microfinance still a main finance support to its own people beside the government action.


There is one and the first microfinance institute which well known as CréditMutuel Kampuchea (CMK) who provides study loan to the Cambodian students to continue his/her study at the university level (both bachelor degree and post graduate) or vocational level without collateral.The students can apply for study loan by going throw CMK load principle is to be member of CMK and good credit at study performance. And this microfinance will offer like following:

Provide loan up to 3000 USD

Duration up to 5 years

Interest rate 1.5% per month

No collateral, only base on study performance result

And students are not required to pay back at during the study time, they only pay monthly interest. 


IV. Long distance training

Long Distance Learning or Trainingis a mode of delivering education and instruction, often on an individual basis, to students who are not physically present in a traditional setting such as a classroom. Distance learning provides "access to learning when the source of information and the learners are separated by time and distance, or both." Long Distance learning that require a physical on-site presence for any reason (including taking examinations) have been referred to as hybrid or blended courses of study. Massive open online courses (MOOCs), aimed at large-scale interactive participation and open access via the web or other network technologies, are a recent development in distance education.

Within the class, students are able to learn in ways that traditional classrooms would not be able to provide. It is able to promote good learning experiences and therefore, allow students to obtain higher satisfaction with their online learning.

The Benefit

Distance learning can expand access to education and training for both ordinary people and businessman since its flexible scheduling structure lessens the effects of the many time-constraints imposed by personal responsibilities and commitments.Devolving some activities off-site alleviates institutional capacity constraints arising from the traditional demand on institutional buildings and infrastructure.

The distance educational increase in communication, particularly communication amongst students and their classmates is an improvement that has been made to provide distance education students with as many of the opportunities as possible as they would receive in in-person education. By having the opportunity to be involved in global institutions via distance education, a diverse array of thought is presented to students through communication with their classmates.

Distance learning may enable students who are unable to attend a traditional school setting, due to disability or illness such as decreased mobility and immune system suppression, to get a good education. Distance education may provide equal access regardless of socioeconomic status or income, area of residence, gender, race, age, or cost per student.

The Technology requirement

Long distance training are required the needed of technology like internet and other device needed, such as computer, earphone, webcam, etc.  Although the expansion of the Internet blurs the boundaries, distance learning technologies are divided into two modes of delivery: synchronous learning and asynchronous learning.

In synchronous learning mode, all participants are present at the same time. In this regard, it resembles traditional classroom teaching methods despite the participants being located remotely. Videoconferencing, web conferencing, educational televisions are the examples of synchronous technology.

In asynchronous learning mode, participants access course materials flexibly on their own schedules. Students are not required to be together at the same time. Mail correspondence, which is the oldest form of distance education, is an asynchronous delivery technology, as are message board forums, e-mail, video and audio recordings, print materials, voicemail, and fax.

The Barriers

Barriers to effective distance education include obstacles such as domestic distractions and unreliable technology, as well as students' program costs, adequate contact with teachers and support services, and a need for more experience.The lack of advanced technology skills can lead to an unsuccessful experience. And some students attempt to participate in distance education without proper training of the tools needed to be successful in the program. The languages, time management and study skills are also the strong constrains for student. Therefore,students must be provided with training on each tool that is used throughout the program.

The effluent by developed country like western side has increase the number of student in Cambodia attempt the training program throw long distance training and some are taking master degree courses,too.


V. Support from government for women entrepreneurs

One of the Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MOWA)’s goals in economic development is to enhance socio-economic status of women through gender equitable poverty reduction and rural development programs, expansion of employment and business opportunities and protection of women worker's rights, in particular for the vulnerable, the poor, the unemployed, and the disabled girls and women.In responding to accomplish the goal, MOWA has been implementing a number of projects as follows:

-          Women Development Centers (WDC) in Siem Reap and Kampong Chhnang provinces: MOWA has established the two centers for promoting women’s handicraft products and their vocational training skills development.

-          Micro- and Small Enterprise Development and Support. The Project aimed at endowing 3,000 women with entrepreneurial skills in micro- and small enterprise development. The project utilized a participatory approach to fostering market-oriented rural enterprises, implementing the following interventions: six Community Resource Assessment  (CRA) exercises; 17 village-level three-day Gender and Enterprise workshops, attended by 540 participants; the organization of 76 producer groups, comprised of 889 members; the design and implementation of a substantial number of skills training sessions, focused on the production and marketing of the project-identified handicrafts such as : (i.e., sedge mat, bamboo handicrafts, triangle sedge mats, rattan, pandanus and proa mats); assisted the WDC/PDWA conduct market research exercises, investigating the market for the focus products, recruited trainers  and communicated with likely buyers; offered marketing support to the producer groups, assisting with product exhibits, trade fairs and product exposure at various conferences.

-          Capacity Building and Project Management Support. The project targeted the improved capacity of 100 provincial department staff, 40 ministry staff and 20 WDC staff. Institutional strengthening was undertaken through hands-on coaching, planning, assessment and advice. Because of these interventions, staff gained the ability to utilize participatory market-oriented approaches to enterprise development, the "GET Ahead" process and PRA-CRA methodologies. These new skills, in turn, enabled them to facilitate project activities in the areas of awareness raising, counseling and skills development activities for the community and producers' groups. The project also provided senior staff with substantial exposure to inter-agency discussions on gender and enterprise development, enhancing their understanding of both concepts.

-          "Food Processing" Training. Training on "Food Processing" was conducted by MOWA in the Economic Development Project. This training was held at 2 centers from 2 provinces namely kampong Speu and Kampong Cham, by using national budget. 195 trainees from each province were attended. Another training on "Food Processing" was conducted for 31 participants from centers and provincial department 12 of women's affairs.