Living Wage Series - France - September 2019 - In Euro, per Month

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You are looking at an archive page of WageIndicator Living Wages. This data is not comparable with recent data provided by WageIndicator. This is due to revised data cleaning procedures adopted by WageIndicator and the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the cost of living globally. Moreover, the national data shown does not reflect the regional data that is used for Living Wage implementation.

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The Living Wage is based on the concept that work should provide an adequate income to cover the necessary living costs of a family. WageIndicator uses prices from the Cost of Living Survey to calculate Living Wage in more than 70 countries. The Living Wage is an approximate income needed to meet a family’s basic needs including food, housing, transport, health, education, tax deductions and other necessities.

The following table summarises the varying expenditure and income needs for the three commonly occurring family household compositions.

Expenditure and Living Wage calculation (monthly rates in EUR)

  Typical family Standard family Single-adult
  from-to from-to from-to
Food expenses 785-1000 785-1000 195-250
Housing expenses 740-950 740-950 415-535
Transport expenses 94-135 94-135 47-68
Healthcare expenses 82-225 82-225 20-57
Education expenses 80-275 80-275 0
Other expenses 89-130 89-130 34-45
Total Expenditure 1870-2715 1870-2715 712-954
Net Living Wage 1169-1697 1039-1508 712-954
Gross Living Wage 1520-2210 1350-1960 925-1240

Note: For more details see Living Wage FAQ.


Family Living Wages (monthly rates in EUR)

There is not a single answer to what is the adequate cost of living. The result is complex, as the cost of living varies by household composition, location, and employment pattern. The following table presents the Living Wage estimates for a set of most common family household compositions and under different assumptions about working hours.

Typical family (two parents + 2 children, 1.6 working) 1520-2210
Standard family (two parents + 2 children, 1.8 working) 1350-1960
Two parents and two children, 2 working 1220-1770
Two parents and two children, 1.5 working 1620-2360
Two parents and two children, 1 working 2430-3530
Two parents and three children, 1.6 working 1690-2420
Two parents and four children, 1.6 working 1860-2640
Single-adult without children, 1 working 925-1240

Note: Results in the table are rounded.


Living Wages in Context (monthly rates in EUR)

The Minimum Wage is a national legally binding obligation on employers which often make no reference to a living standard. Living Wage describes the adequate living standard. The common goal of the many living wage campaigns currently taking place all over the world is to lift Minimum Wages levels to those of the Living Wages. WageIndicator presents Living Wages jointly with Minimum Wages, aiming to raise awareness concerning the remaining differences in levels. Living Wages are presented in context with other wage indicators including prevailing wages of workers over recent years.

  2016 2017 2018 2019
Minimum wage 1466 1480 1498 1521
Living Wage - Single Adult 890-1210 915-1210 925-1190 925-1240
Living Wage - Typical Family 1470-2180 1500-2180 1520-2150 1520-2210
Real wage of low-skilled worker 1440-1660 1520-1750 1490-1710 1490-1770
Real wage of medium-skilled worker 1640-1940 1740-2060 1770-2070 1720-2090
Real wage of high-skilled worker 2450-3050 2580-3200 2660-3280 2590-3290

Note: Table shows the lowest monthly Minimum Wage in a country, when available. Reported monthly earnings of workers in low-, medium-, and high-skilled occupations are obtained from the voluntary WageIndicator web survey on work and wages. Results in the table are rounded.


Food basket and food prices in EUR

The food expenditure is the main component of Living Wage and it is determined by the price of food basket. The food prices are taken from WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey which collects the actual prices of all items necessary to calculate the Living Wage. The composition of the food basket is taken from the national food balance sheets published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The food basket is scaled to 2,100 calories per person per day that is the nutritional requirement for good health proposed by World Bank (Handbook on poverty and inequality, 2009).

Food item Grams per day Energy (kcal) Price per kilo
Wheat, barley and cereals products 190 517 2-3
Rice 8 32 1-1.7
Meat (beef, pork, poultry) 158 294 8-12
Oils (soyabean, olive, palm) 22 196 -
Sugar (Raw Equivalent) 63 223 1-1.5
Maize and products 19 48 -
Milk - Excluding Butter 571 295 .8-.9
Vegetables, Other 126 35 1-1
Potatoes and products 92 59 .6-.6
Butter, Ghee 19 136 -
Groundnuts (Shelled Eq) 10 28 -
Pulses, Other and products 1 4 4-12
Egg (price per 10 eggs) 22 32 -
Sunflowerseed Oil 10 92 -
Fish products 80 69 -
Beer (0.5 liter/pint) 40 19 4-4
Sweeteners, Other 3 7 -
Beans 1 4 4-4
Bananas 8 5 1.5-1.8
Apples and products 22 10 1.8-2
Tomatoes and products 35 6 2-2.5
Onions 5 2 1-1.5
Oranges, Mandarines 83 15 -
Plantains 1 1 -
Peas 1 2 2-2.5
Seeds and kernels 0 1 -
Wine (bottle) 64 44 -
Pineapples and products 4 2 -
Cream 9 18 8.5-12
Olives (including preserved) 2 2 -
Honey 1 2 -
Lemons, Limes and products 4 1 2-8
Grapefruit and products 9 2 -
Coffee and products 10 4 -


WageIndicator Living Wage background:

The WageIndicator Living Wage is set to provide acceptable living standard to a family of a particular size. WageIndicator presents Living Wages for several household types and working hours which reflect the most frequently found real situations in which people have to make a living: 1. Typical family Living Wage is a baseline estimate that respects the country specific conditions. Typical family is comprised of two adults and the number of children is given by country specific fertility rate (the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her lifespan). One adult is working full-time and the working hours of second adult are approximated by national employment rate. The total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 2. Standard family Living Wage is estimated for a family composed of two adults and two children (referred to as family 2+2). Living wage is calculated under different assumptions about working hours. These include that both adults work full-time (family employment rate is 2), or at least one adult works part-time or half-time (family employment rate is 1.8 and 1.5), or one adult does not work at all (i.e. patriarchal model with family employment 1). Alternatives refer to trade-offs between leisure and work and define what living wage represents. In every case the total income earned by two adults paid living wage is sufficient to reach adequate living standard. 3. Extended family Living Wage includes family with three or four children. One adult works full-time and the work intensity of second parent is approximated by national employment rate. 4. Individual Living Wage represents an acceptable standard of living for a single individual working full-time.

Data sources: WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey, World Bank Databank Fertility rate 2010-2014, ILO Estimated participation rate in 2017, FAO Food balance sheet in 2013.

WageIndicator useful links:

Publication Guzi, M., & Kahanec, M. (2019). Estimating Living Wage Globally. Amsterdam, WageIndicator Foundation
WageIndicator Wages in Context Map with the latest updates
All You Always wanted to Know about Living Wages



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